In a nutshell
This study reviewed dietary approaches to lower blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It found that several diets including low-sodium, high-fiber, DASH, low-protein, and vegan were effective in reducing blood pressure in patients with T2D.
Patients with T2D have higher average blood pressure and are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Lowering blood pressure can reduce the risk of these cardiovascular complications.
There are two parts to blood pressure. As the heart contracts, the blood pressure rises. This is called systolic blood pressure (SBP). As the heart relaxes the blood pressure lowers. This lower value is the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Both values are involved in cardiovascular health. Previous studies have found that a 10 mmHg decline in SBP reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by 20%. A 5 mmHg reduction in DBP was connected to a 32% reduction in the risk of stroke.
Diet plays a role in blood pressure. Eating vegetables, fruits, and high-fiber foods can lower blood pressure. Conversely, diets high in salt can raise blood pressure. Many diets have been advocated for blood pressure and T2D. Some examples are DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension), high-fiber, and low sodium. It is unclear what the best diet to lower blood pressure is in patients with T2D.
Methods & findings
This review included 24 studies with 1130 patients with T2D. There were 11 diets studied. These were vegan, low-fat, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), low-sodium, high-fiber, low-protein, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, low-glycemic, Paleolithic, Mediterranean, and Korean traditional diet.
A low-sodium diet was the most effective in reducing SBP, with an average reduction of 10.84 mmHg. High-fiber (-9.08 mmHg) and DASH (-6.19 mmHg) were the next most effective in reducing SBP. Low-fat, high-protein, low-protein, and vegan diets also significantly reduced SBP.
A high-fiber diet was the most effective in reducing DBP, with an average reduction of 7.28 mmHg. Low fat (-5.53 mmHg) and low-protein (-5.02 mmHg) were the next most effective in reducing DBP. A vegan diet also significantly reduced DBP.
The bottom line
This study found that a number of diets lowered blood pressure in patients with T2D. A high-fiber diet was the most effective at lowering both blood pressure values.
The fine print
Each dietary approach had a small number of studies (between 1 and 4). This limits the strength of the conclusions.
Published By :
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Original Title :
Effect of different dietary approaches compared with a regular diet on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
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