Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), specifically IGF1 and IGF2, promote glucose metabolism, with their availability regulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We hypothesized that IGF1 and IGF2 levels, or their bioavailability, are reduced during type 1 diabetes development. Total serum IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP1–7 levels were measured in an age-matched, cross-sectional cohort at varying stages of progression to type 1 diabetes. IGF1 and IGF2 levels were significantly lower in autoantibody (AAb)+ compared with AAb− relatives of subjects with type 1 diabetes. Most high-affinity IGFBPs were unchanged in individuals with pre–type 1 diabetes, suggesting that total IGF levels may reflect bioactivity. We also measured serum IGFs from a cohort of fasted subjects with type 1 diabetes. IGF1 levels significantly decreased with disease duration, in parallel with declining β-cell function. Additionally, plasma IGF levels were assessed in an AAb+ cohort monthly for a year. IGF1 and IGF2 showed longitudinal stability in single AAb+ subjects, but IGF1 levels decreased over time in subjects with multiple AAb and those who progressed to type 1 diabetes, particularly postdiagnosis. In sum, IGFs are dysregulated both before and after the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and may serve as novel biomarkers to improve disease prediction.
- Received September 18, 2019.
- Accepted December 4, 2019.
- © 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.