Salivary amylase, encoded by the AMY1 gene, is responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates. We investigated associations of AMY1 genetic variations with general and central adiposity changes considering dietary carbohydrate intake among 32,054 adults from four prospective cohort studies. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on nine AMY1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, with higher AMY1-GRS indicating higher activity of salivary amylase. We meta-analyzed interactions between AMY1-GRS and dietary intake for changes in general and central adiposity over 5.5–10 years. We found that carbohydrate food intake significantly altered associations of AMY1-GRS with changes in BMI (Pinteraction = 0.001) and waist circumference (Pinteraction < 0.001). Results were consistent and significant in female cohorts rather than in male cohorts. Among women, higher AMY1-GRS was associated with more increases in adiposity if dietary carbohydrate food intake was high, while higher AMY1-GRS was associated with less gains in adiposity when the dietary intake was low. Also, in a 2-year randomized dietary intervention trial, associations of AMY1-GRS with changes in weight (Pinteraction = 0.023) and waist circumference (Pinteraction = 0.037) were significantly modified by carbohydrate intake. Our results suggest the importance of precision nutrition strategies considering participants’ genetic adaptation to carbohydrate-rich diets in regulating general and central adiposity.
- Received December 23, 2019.
- Accepted May 29, 2020.
- © 2020 by the American Diabetes Association